老照片中的老北京店铺——两张巧合的照片

前些天一个朋友送了我一本中安太平07秋古籍善本专场的图录,第1125号拍品是1930年日本建筑学会出版的《支那建筑》,图录里只登载了其中的一页。碰巧昨天ebay上结束的一张Thomas CHILD的北京商铺的照片,两张照片的拍摄对象竟然是同一家店!

bjstore-1

ebay上那张,最后154.5美元成交

bjstore-2

中安太平07秋古籍善本专场第1125号拍品

很好奇这家店铺是具体位置在什么地方,现在是否健在。Thomas CHILD拍的那张下面文字说明是“TEA SHOP”,《支那建筑》一书中的照片能看到店铺前所挂长招牌上写道“宝裕字号名茶发兑”,可见应该是一家茶铺,而且这么多外国人拍,应该在那个时候还是很有名气的。我google了“宝裕”和“宝裕茶铺”,都没有我想要的结果。从注释中可还可看出这家店在东四,那个时候(当然现在也是)东四是非常繁华的。

从成堆的历史照片中偶然找到这样的巧合真的非常有趣,如果有可能我会继续留意这家店的照片并争取找到她的历史。

《亚东印画辑》中有关北京古建筑的部分照片

《亚东印画辑》的来历不必再说了,能google出一大堆。抛开《亚》的间谍观来看,其还是有着很重要的历史纪录价值,不少当时的民风、建筑等文化方面的东西被纪录并流传下来,我认为可以称之为重要的史料。

最近看到几本,里面有零散的几张关于北京古建筑的,这是我喜欢的内容,可惜原配的黑色卡纸和日文的说明文字都没有了,现将照片贴在下面,希望有机会能看到完整的“北平专辑”。

yadongbj-1静宜园(即今香山公园)琉璃塔

yadongbj-2颐和园十七孔桥

yadongbj-3颐和园万寿山

yadongbj-4在玉泉山上远眺颐和园

yadongbj-5国子监

yadongbj-6精美的石雕

 

庆寿寺双塔老照片

双塔庆寿寺原址在西城区西长安街28号。1954年扩建西长安街拆除。

金初始建,称大庆寿寺,元初重建。明正统十三年(1448)重修,改称大兴隆寺,又名慈恩寺。嘉靖十四年(1535)毁于火。嘉靖十五年(1536)改为讲武堂、演象所。双塔在寺西侧。一塔9级,称“天光普照佛日圆明海云佑圣国师之塔”,一塔7级,称“佛日圆照大禅师可庵之灵塔”。

当年梁思成先生尽了很大努力也没能保留下来。

qingshousi

好文一篇:Historic Photographic Processes

 

Historic Photographic Processes

The Albumen Print

Invented in 1850 by Louis Désiré Blanquart-Evrard, the albumen print became the dominant photographic printing process for nearly fifty years. Most of the albumen prints in the A. D. White Architectural Photographs Collection were produced between 1865 and 1895.

Technical definition:
First, a thin piece of paper is coated with an emulsion containing both egg white (albumen) and salt (usually sodium chloride). A subsequent immersion in a bath of silver nitrate renders the paper light-sensitive. The paper is next dried in the dark, then placed in a frame under a glass negative (most often, it was a glass negative with a collodion emulsion) and exposed in direct sunlight until the image achieves the proper level of darkness (from a few minutes to an hour, depending on light conditions). Albumen prints are thus
contact printed, or placed in direct contact with the negative. Since the image emerges as a direct result of exposure to light and without the aid of a developing solution, the albumen print is a Printed-Out (rather than Developed-Out) photograph. A bath of sodium thiosulfate then fixes the print’s exposure and prevents further darkening. Finally, gold toning improves the photograph’s tone and helps protect it from fading.

General Attributes
During the first stage of preparation, the viscous albumen coating fills in the pores of the paper and produces an even, slightly glossy surface. Because the albumen covers the paper fibers so smoothly, the process is particularly well suited to capturing fine detail. On very close examination, however, the surface may be covered with tiny fissures, as the albumen layer sometimes cracks as it dries. Although albumen prints are highly prone to fading, the general tone is yellowish, with cream-colored highlights and deep chocolate brown shadows. They can range from reddish-brown to purplish-blue.

Dates
1855-1920 (although most albumen prints in the A. D. White Architectural Photographs Collection were produced between 1865 and 1895)

Primary Characteristics of Albumen Prints

&S226; Silver print (photo-sensitive element is silver)
&S226; 2-layer structure (paper support & albumen layer)
&S226; Made primarily from glass plate negatives with collodion emulsion
&S226; Usually mounted on paper or board to prevent curling
&S226; Red-brown or purple image tone
&S226; cracking and yellowing of binder
&S226; Surface gloss
&S226; Cannot produce true black and white tones

The Gelatin Silver Print

In 1873, Peter Mawdsley invented the first photographic paper with a gelatin emulsion, and commercially-produced gelatin silver printing papers were available by 1885. Gelatin, an animal protein, is used as an emulsion, to bind light sensitive silver salts (usually silver bromides or silver chlorides) to a paper or other support. Unlike the albumen print, which is a printing-out process, the gelatin print is a developing-out process. After a brief exposure to a negative (under an enlarger), the print is immersed in chemicals to allow the image to develop, or emerge fully. Typically, the photographic materials in a gelatin silver print are extremely sensitive to light. Gelatin silver prints replaced albumen prints as the most popular photographic process by 1895 because they were much more stable, did not have a tendency to yellow, and were far easier to produce.

Dates
1885 to present (although most gelatin silver prints in the A. D. White Collection were produced between 1900 and 1930)

Primary Characteristics of Gelatin Silver Prints

&S226; Silver print (photo-sensitive element is silver)
&S226; 3-layer structure (support, gelatin binder and baryta layer)
&S226; Glossy, matte, or textured surface
&S226;
Silver mirroring common in dark areas and edges
&S226; May be toned
&S226; Fiber-based paper support or Plastic, resin-coated support
&S226; Paper fibers invisible
&S226; Can attain true black and white tones

The Cyanotype

Sir John Herschel invented the cyanotype process in 1842, rather early in the history of photography. While both albumen and silver gelatin prints rely on the light sensitivity of silver, cyanotypes are produced by light sensitive iron salts.

Technical definition:
A piece of paper is first sensitized with a solution of ferric ammonium citrate (an iron salt) and potassium ferricyanide (a crystalline iron salt) and dried. The prepared paper is then
contact printed, or placed in direct contact with the negative, and exposed to sunlight until an image begins to appear on the paper (usually about fifteen minutes). As contact prints, they are always the same size as their negatives. In the final step, the print is washed in water to oxidize the iron salts and draw out the cyanotype’s brilliant blue color.

General Attributes
The cyanotype is named for its rich blue-green hue, cyan. Cyanotype prints have no emulsion; the light-sensitive iron salts have been infused into the paper fibers, unlike either albumen or gelatin silver prints. Cyanotypes were far simpler and les expensive to produce, which made them a favorite method for turn-of-the-century amateurs who wanted to make proofs of their negatives. The architectural blueprint is a variation of this photographic process.

Dates
1842 to present (although most cyanotypes in the A. D. White Architectural Photographs Collection were produced between 1880 and 1900)

Primary Characteristics of Cyanotypes

&S226; Non-silver print (photo-sensitive element is iron)
&S226; Blue color
&S226; One-layer structure
&S226; Paper fibers visible
&S226; Matte surface

一张Felice A. Beato的早期照片

Felice A. Beato是1860年英法联军的随军记者,当年在中国拍摄了很多非常珍贵的照片,尤其是颐和园被焚后的场景,甚至有可能拍摄了被毁前的圆明园。1863年他去了日本并定居那里,很可惜的是大部分底片在一次火灾中被焚毁了。前段时间我偶然得到藏在日本的Felice A. Beato的照片贴册《PHOTOGRAPHIC VIEWS IN CHINA》电子版,贴一张罗哲文先生在《失去的建筑》一书中引用的北海白塔照片。

FBeato-1

再来一张未被引用的远眺景山和紫禁城。

FBeato-2